Ethiopia is dating back to the very initial stages of mankind with the reference of the oldest remains of a human ancestor ever found, which have been dated as being some five million years old, were discovered in the Awash Valley in Ethiopia. This beats the discovery of “Lucy”, a 3.2 million year old skeleton, who was unearthed in the same area in 1974.

Ethiopia is home to the most ancient kingdom in Africa, one of the first monarchies in the world. It is the sole African country to obtain an alphabet more than 3,000 years old. It is the only country on the continent to 0have maintained independence in the face of European colonizers.

Ethiopia is the tenth largest country in Africa with a surface area of 1,194,000 square kilometers (461,003 sq. miles). It lies in eastern Africa, between the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer, in a region known as the Horn of Africa.

Ethiopia has been called “The Roof of Africa” for its most stupendous topographical feature: a huge central plateau, the Ethiopian Massif.

Ethiopia has been called the “water tower” of Northeast Africa. The amalgamation of its high elevation, 14 large rivers numerous lakes and other sources of fresh water, has created an extensive natural irrigation system to various regions of the Horn of Africa

Ethiopia is also the land of the Queen of Sheba, a place of well-known rulers, tremendous kingdoms and ancient mysteries.. With more than 80 languages and some 200 dialects, each ethnic group lives together, conserve its own unique, tradition, and costumes.

There are three most regular ethnic groups that have had a preponderant situation in the national history Amhara, Tigray and Oromo.Other plentiful ethnic groups like Afar, Guraghe ,Sidamo, wolayita and several animistic Tribes dwelling in the western and southern territories correspondingly Align the Omo River .

Food and Drink The Ethiopian national dish is called wat. It is a hot spicy stew accompanied by injera . Teff is unique to the country and is grown on the Ethiopian highlands. And also the souse called wat made from different vegetables and flour of chickpeas called shiro. There are many varieties of wat, chicken, beef, lamb, vegetables, lentils, and ground split peas stewed with hot spice called berbere(red Chilli). There are locally produced beverages called tella and tej, which are served and drunk on major religious festivals, occasions and holydays. Tella and tej are also sold by numerous traditional bars.

The main religions in Ethiopia are Christianity, Islam, Catholic and Protestant. Ethiopia is a predominantly Christian country and the majority of Christians are Orthodox Tewahedo Christians, who belong to the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. There are a minority of Christians who are Roman Catholic or Protestant. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church is headed by a patriarch and is related to the communion of the Coptic Orthodox Church.

There are 90 individual languages of Ethiopia, from those Amharic, Tigrna and Ormifa are mostly used by Natives and Amharic is the legislative national working language. most significant areas of Ethiopian culture is its literature, which is represented predominantly by translations from ancient Greek and Hebrew religious texts into the ancient language Ge’ez, modern Amharic and Tigrigna languages.Ge’ez is one of the most ancient languages in the world and is still used today by the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church.

The Ethiopian currency is called Birr and is issued by the National Bank of Ethiopia. One Birr is made up of 100 cents. The Bank notes are in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 50, and 100 Birr and the coins are in denominations of 1,5, 10, 25 and 50 cents.

The Ethiopian calendar is having a year of 13 months, 365 days and 366 days in a leap year every fourth year and it is much prejudiced by the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, which follows its ancient calendar set of laws and beliefs. The Ethiopian calendar is always seven years and eight months following the Gregorian and Eastern Orthodox Church calendars during September and December and eight years and four months behind during January and August.

Ethiopia is one of the tropical zone laying between the Equator. There are four main kinds of climates in Ethiopia called Dega.Weyinadega ,Kolla and Berha. Dega is cold zone which is 2440 Meters above hight and the tempreture will be about 16 degree Celsius. Weyinadega is a medium weather condition not to cold or hot in between of two. includes the highlands areas of 1830 – 2440 meters in height and the average temperature will be about 22 degree Celsius. Kola is the hot zone which is below 1830 meters and the temperature is about 22 degree Celsius. Bereha is the dessert area which is below 125 meters and 16 Degree Celsius.


  • Bega (winter) – December, January and February are the dry season with frost in morning specially in January.
  • Kiremt (summer) – June, July and August are the summer season. Heavy rain falls in these three months.
  •  Tseday (spring) – September, October and November are the spring season sometime known as the harvest season.
  •  Belg (Autumn) – March, April

Ethiopia is located in northeast Africa, in the area known as ‘The Horn of Africa’. It is delimited by Eritrea, Sudan, South Sudan, Kenya, Somalia, the self-proclaimed nationalist country of Somaliland, and Djibouti. on all sides of an area of 1,104,300 sq km the central area is a enormous highland region of volcanic rock forming a watered, temperate zone surrounded by hot, arid, inhospitable desert. The Great Rift Valley (which starts in Palestine, runs down the Red Sea and diagonally southwest through Ethiopia. Within the country there is a huge diversity in altitude. The highest point is at Ras Dashen in the Simien Mountains, which at 4543m (14905 ft) is Africa’s 10th tallest mountain. The lowest point is inside the Danakil Depression which reaches 125m (410ft) below sea level.